I thought that I would share with you this history of Cherry Hinton Hall, which I have been working on, for some years on and off, this latest version, given below, is based the one that I placed in the appendix of the Cherry Hinton Hall Management Plan, which I wrote for Cambridge City Council in 2019. It was used as part of the application for a Green Flag for Cherry Hinton Hall, which was a successful application with a Green Flag being awarded for the park (I will place a separate blog post about this on here shortly).
I am the official historian for Cherry Hinton Hall and grew up just down the road from "the Hall" as many of us called it. I went to the playgroup in the Hall building and to the clinic, again within the Hall building, for my childhood jabs. I also spent many hours playing on the park, at the duck ponds and within the grounds.
I am writing a book about the site which will give the full history, in more detail, and I will let you know when this will be available (I've been saying this for years, I know!).
For now, here is a pretty decent length overview for you to have a look at.
Cherry Hinton Hall is a former Victorian country house and grounds. It was built, and the grounds laid out, in the late 1830’s by John Okes, a Cambridge surgeon, as his family home. Previous to the site being developed for this use, the area it was to be built upon, was part of the medieval open field system of the village of Cherry Hinton. There are very few surviving maps of this area before 1806. We can see the pre-Enclosure map and the Parliamentary Enclosure maps of 1806. These both show the dramatic transition from the medieval open field system, upon which, the village agricultural system used to function, to the changes to agriculture and the landscape, brought about by the Parliamentary Enclosure Acts. Through which process, the opportunity was provided to wealthy investors to purchase large parcels of land, which in this case, resulted in the land for the site of Cherry Hinton Hall to be acquired. From the time the Hall and Park were constructed and laid out, the site has remained relatively intact with its transition from a Victorian, family country home to its present form, as a multifunctioning, well managed public park.
The pre-Enclosure map shows that the area in which Cherry Hinton Hall was to be built, was within one of the 6 remaining open fields of the parish, these fields formed the medieval, agricultural, open field system of the village of Cherry Hinton. The site lay within the field, to the south west of the village, called ‘Bridge Field’ and through that field, the Hinton Brook flowed from the south-eastern side of the site. From the pre-Enclosure map, we can also see that there was a building called ‘Pecks Homestead’, which would have stood just south-west of where the present-day Hall building now stands. Within the ‘lake’ area by the waterways, at the north west of the site, there once stood several other buildings, which at the time of Enclosure, were in the occupation of Robert Rickards, who was the common herdsman of the village. These buildings are thought to be that of much older buildings, likely watermills and their associated dwellings, which have stood on the site since at least the 13th century.
 Cherry Hinton Hall 2004 Historical Research & Excavation Report, Bullivant & Clarke 2004
The 1806 Pre-Enclosure map of Bridge Field, Cherry Hinton. Showing the area that was to become the site for Cherry Hinton Hall & its parks and gardens. The red dot, added, shows where the future building of the Hall would stand. The blue lines show the water course and what was to become the ‘lake’ area of Cherry Hinton Hall.
We can also see the waterways of the site from the pre-Enclosure map above. The square, water-enclosed island in the south west corner, may have been a medieval, moated manor site and is currently thought (M. Bullivant) to have been the site of Netherhall Manor, which was one of the 4 known but now gone, manors of Cherry Hinton.
 Cherry Hinton Hall 2004 Historical Research & Excavation Report, Bullivant & Clarke 2004
The Hinton Brook, which runs through the site, was an important tributary of the River Cam, where it joined its destination at Stourbridge Common in Cambridge. The Brook broke forth as a series of fresh water springs at the north-west base of the Gog Magog Hills and formed a spring pool, known locally as Spring Head (also known as Giant’s Grave). The Spring Head was no doubt a major factor in the siting of the village. From the Spring Head, the chalk lined, fresh water brook, flowed in a north-westerly direction, where it entered Bridge Field, to be manipulated for early industrial purpose, before flowing on north-westerly to eventually join the River Cam.
Cherry Hinton Spring Head (aka Giants Grave) c.1910
Once the Parliamentary Enclosure had taken place, in 1806 in Cherry Hinton, much of the land ownership and use changed dramatically. The old, large, open fields and those systems of agriculture were gone. The land was divided up and sold into smaller parcels and new owners took over. Robert Rickards, the common herdsman living in Bridge Field, for example, was given notice to quit the property and land in 1814 and had to leave his home. These changes ultimately led to the purchasing of the land in Bridge Field and surrounding parcels of land by Mr John Okes, who planned and executed the building of Cherry Hinton Hall and the layout of its grounds. This new development work included clearing the old buildings that stood within the lake area of the site and once occupied by Robert Rickards and clearing the site of Pecks Homestead, all in preparation for the building of the Hall and park design, which began in 1831.
The 1806 Enclosure map of Cherry Hinton, showing what was Bridge Field.
John Okes had returned from the army in India and joined his father, Thomas Verny Okes, a well-known surgeon, at Addenbrooke’s Hospital, to work as a surgeon at the hospital himself. At this time Addenbrooke’s Hospital was on the Trumpington Road site, within the town of Cambridge. Cherry Hinton Hall was completed by 1839 and John Okes had laid out his ‘miniature park and gardens’ around the Hall building. The site was just 3 miles from the Cambridge town and the Old Addenbrooke’s Hospital. It provided a perfect family home for John, his wife Mary and their children, an escape from the busy town, which lay just within the bounds of the countryside.
Plan of Cherry Hinton Hall c.1960 , shows the various additions (shown in light tone) to the original form (shown in heavy tone). The additions include the billiard room to the north-west side and various minor additions to the rear. You will see that there was once a staircase added, within the main entrance porch, which is no longer there today.
Cherry Hinton Hall was built in the Gothic Revival style. It was placed centrally within the grounds. Built in Gault brick with stone dressing, with stone and slate covered roofs. The chimneystacks have separate octagonal shafts with oversailing brick capping. The glazing was lead-traced lozenge-shaped panes. The coach-house and stables were built just to the north west of the main building and the small Lodge was built in the same style as the house, to the south-west of the main Hall building, by the entrance gates and entrance to the driveway. The Lodge originally had its own length of garden, which ran to the eastern side of the property. The park and gardens were laid out with meadow and pasture, along with formal garden areas at the very front of the building, a kitchen garden to the rear of the property and features such as the orchard that lay within the lake area upon the place where Robert Rickards had once lived.
John Okes had the water course, flowing through his land, enlarged at one point to make an small ornamental lake and stocked the stream with trout and had a pike pond made. He also spent a considerable amount of money in planting the grounds. He had four weirs built along the watercourse to help control the water and a special deal was agreed with Cambridge University and Town Waterworks Company (CUTWC), of which John Okes’ brother Richard Okes was a Director, to supply a specific gallonage of water to the lake and stream at Cherry Hinton Hall, as the CUTWC had also acquired land in Cherry Hinton, specifically bought to begin taking advantage of the natural spring water that flowed out the chalk hills just to the south-east. This eventually resulted in the action of building reservoirs on top of Lime Kiln Hill, close by Cherry Hinton Hall and would have a drastic effect on the flow of water into the site, so specific plans were made and the design and control of the waterway running through the hall was managed in order to please both parties.
Front-piece of the Cambridge University and Town Waterworks Act 1871.
Cambridge University and Town Waterworks Company waterworks map.
The lake area of Cherry Hinton Hall (the duck pond and early paddling area) showing the Hinton Brook flowing through towards us, and showing one of the four weirs that John Okes had built during the Victorian period.
The planting of the varied selection of important trees adds to the historical value of the park. A combination of natural countrified meadows and paddocks with a mixture of formal gardens. From the sale particulars of the site in 1870, it can be seen that the grounds included a loose avenue from the gate lodge to the Hall, with the driveway forming a turning area on the Hall’s south side, outside of the front door entrance. Other parkland features included a kitchen garden, lawn and flower parterres, shrubberies and a fernery, two orchards, ornamental pleasure grounds, park-like paddocks, stream and fish pond, fine lawn, beautifully timbered and belted by fine plantations all set within about 35 acres.
John Okes died in 1870 and Cherry Hinton Hall and grounds were placed on the market for sale. The layout of the site, as he had intended it, can be seen from the sale map and particulars of the site. The sweeping driveway which ran from the south west of the site and curved round to the north east to meet at the front door of the hall was laid out when the grounds were planned, and remains, in its original position to this day.
Cherry Hinton Hall sale map, 1870. This map shows the detail of the grounds and features therein.
The sale advert for Cherry Hinton Hall 1870.
Following the death of John Okes, the site was sold to Cambridge University and Town Waterworks Company (CUTWC) for the sum of £5000, who went on rent the property and its grounds to private tenants. Cherry Hinton Hall remained in private occupation for around the next 60 years. During this time various people lived at the Hall.
The first tenant after the death of John Okes was Charles Balls. Charles Balls had started out life working as a shoemaker and then went on to become a Mayor of Cambridge and later a Director of The Cambridge University & Town Waterworks Company. He, his wife and four of his daughters lived at the Hall. His wife Eliza died in 1876 and Charles and his daughters remained at the Hall until 1888, when they moved back into Cambridge Town Centre.
Charles Balls (1810-1892) Read more here:
The O.S map of 1886 shows the park with its water ways, planting, buildings and curved driveway. At this time, the Lodge can be seen with its plot of garden running to the east of the Lodge building.
Robert Moffatt, a General manager of a bank in Cambridge, and his family lived at the Hall for a few years until Major Richard Thomas Lyons, a retired military surgeon, took over the tenancy for another couple of years until c.1900. Cherry Hinton Hall was then unoccupied for a short while until 1902 when Sir William Phene Neal and his wife moved in.
Sir William Phene Neal and his wife, Lady Eleanor Vise c.1902
Sir William Phene Neal who lived with his wife, Lady Eleanor Vise, at Cherry Hinton Hall, created the Cherry Hinton Hall Dairy Farm within the grounds. He went on to become the Lord Mayor of London in 1930 and local stories tell of remembering him being driven in a beautiful horse drawn carriage down the drive, from the park grounds and onwards to Cambridge train station, where he would travel to and from London. Last occupier of the Hall before its sale in the 1930’s was Lt. Col. Brocklehurst Phillips O.B.E.
Cherry Hinton Hall in 1910, showing the drive return and front garden planting.
Ownership remained with The CUTWC and as such the Cambridge University Trinity Estates to which CUTWC was held, until 1937 when Cambridge City Council purchased the whole site, Hall and grounds and the site remains in their ownership today. This particular period was one where nationally the move to acquire and ornament public open spaces was prevalent. Cambridge City Council purchased the Hall and the grounds in May 1937, for £13000.00, and it remains in their ownership today. In November 1937, a conveyance document with covenant was drawn up which laid out the conditions of the purchase. The covenant stated that the site “shall be reserved as a public open space under the Cambridge and District Planning Scheme”.
Original Deed of covenant, 1937 and Below: The transcription of this section
Some of the parkland was lost in the sale of the site to Cambridge City Council. A large portion, to the west of the site, was sold off to a Mr Ridgeon (now a well-known Cambridge building firm, Rigeons) and subsequently houses were built along this strip, along with the creation of a new road called Walpole Road.
Cherry Hinton Hall c.1930 OS map, showing the planning position for Walpole Road, across the western side of the grounds. Note the Lodge garden is gone by this date and the driveway finishes at the Hall in a circular sweep.
For the first couple of years in the Councils ownership Cherry Hinton Hall becomes a Youth Hostel. With the outbreak of WWII, the Hall was used a fire depot and a training centre. It then became a home for young evacuees from London.
After Second World War Cherry Hinton Hall was used as an orphanage and by 1944 the Hall was host to a nursery school from 1944-1988.
The Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge, originally published by HMSO in 1959 contains the following entry for the Hall:
“Cherry Hinton Hall, nearly 3⁄4 m. S.W. of the parish church, of two storeys with cellars, has gault brick walls with stone dressings and slate-covered roofs. It was built for John Okes and the title to the property begins with the purchase of plots of land in 1834 (University Library, Map Room: sale advertisement, 1870). Scratched on the roof-lead is the date 1839, to which the house would approximate on stylistic grounds. Late in the same century a billiard room was added on the W. Since 1948 it has been converted into a day-nursery and clinic involving alterations and additions inside and out. The coach-house and stabling standing nearby to the N.W. have been drastically remodelled to provide living-quarters. The Lodge some 210 yds. to the S.W. is contemporary with the house.
Cherry Hinton Hall is a large and rather bald building of the first half of the 19th century in the late Tudor style. The elevations generally have moulded strings at first-floor sill and eaves levels, tall parapet- walls carried up in gablets with moulded copings and apex-finials and stone-mullioned windows of one, two and three square-headed lights with labels; the ground-floor windows are transomed. The S. front is asymmetrical on plan and in height, the porch and the E. part being slightly higher than the rest westward. The doorway has continuously moulded jambs and four-centred head. The rectangular bay-window towards the W. end is an early addition. On the N. side is a four-light transomed window lighting the original staircase; to the kitchen is another of five lights on the W. side. The lights in several windows have been cut down for doorways and french-windows, others retain the original glazing of lozenge-shaped quarries. The chimneystacks have separate octagonal shafts with oversailing brick cappings.
Inside, the staircase in the entrance-hall is a modern insertion involving the blocking of the four- centred archways in the N. and W. walls. The principal rooms have doorways with architraves and six-panel doors all with roll-mouldings; another period allusion is the heavy moulding of the plaster cornices. The E. part of the house retains two original fireplace surrounds of gray polished stone, with moulded jambs and four- centred arches, sunk spandrels and moulded shelves; they are flanked, one by pilaster-like responds with roll-moulded angles and moulded caps, the other by octagonal projections with trefoil-headed sunk panels in the faces. The main staircase has close moulded strings, grip handrails, square panelled newels and pierced strap work balustrading of gilded woodwork. The back staircase has cut strings, a turned newel and slender square balusters.
The Lodge, of one storey, with gault brick walls with stone dressings and tile-covered roofs, of uniform character with the house, has been much enlarged. It has large gables, and a smaller gable to the porch, all with moulded stone copings rising from corbelled kneelers. The windows have stone mullions and the tall chimney-stacks octagonal shafts.”
The grounds of the Hall were opened up to the general public as a public park in 1960. The Lodge building was rented out to a park steward who was responsible for opening and closing the gates and other duties (the park ceased to have a steward by the 1990’s and the lodge building continues to be rented out privately by the City Council.) Before long, there was the addition of a car park to the south west corner of the site, just inside of the front gates, along with the addition of a public convenience. This public park development of the site included providing a healthily stocked duck pond and a bird sanctuary to the eastern area of the site within the waterways. The paddocks at the north-west of the site were turned into a games field and the site began to take shape in its new role for the pleasure of the public. This development also, in turn, enabled protection and preservation of the wide variety of mature parkland trees and features.
Within the Hall building the children’s nursey continued, and there was a health clinic and offices from the 1960’s until the 1980’s.
In 1965 the first Cambridge Folk Festival was held, set within the grounds of Cherry Hinton Hall. The Folk Festival has been held annually, at the site, at the start of August, ever since and celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2014. It has grown to become one of the premier music events in Europe and one of the longest running and most famous folk festivals in the world. As a result, Cherry Hinton Hall is known world-wide and loved by many thousands of people, who over the years have attended the site.
By the mid 1970’s a paddling area was provided within the Hinton Brook, just north of the duck pond and a play area, with playpark equipment, was in use to the west of the site, where the playpark area has remained since.
c. 1979, Playpark equipment in the Hall grounds, close to where the present-day playpark is now situated. The photographs show a see-saw, a roundabout and a climbing frame. You can also see a bench, showing that public park furniture was being provided by this time (©M.Bullivant)
During this time Cambridge City Council continued to use the Hall building for office space and the rear of building was used for the City Council’s storage and horticultural use, for which they built glasshouses and a developed a nursey/propagation centre to provide bedding plants for council planning schemes.
c.1995 - The council propagation centre and planting nursey (now demolished) at back in the Hall building, which would have once been the site of the Victorian kitchen garden. (©M.Bullivant)
By the 1980’s the site was in full use as a public park and had developed a reputation of a lovely place to visit. There were regular outdoor performances by brass bands and families used the site for picnics. Cherry Hinton Hall became a firm favourite with dog walkers and duck feeders across the city and beyond. By 1988 the Hall building was then rented by the council to Eastern Arts, an arts development company, who additionally provided some art for the grounds of the Hall for the public to enjoy. There was also a fenced-off special bird sanctuary, to the east of the site, on the island beyond the lake and more wildfowl were introduced to the site.
c. 1984, Playpark equipment in the Hall grounds, close to where the present-day playpark is now situated. The photographs show a new roundabout and ‘rocking’ horses. (©M.Bullivant)
In 1987, a refreshment kiosk was opened on the west side of the building, this was only in service for a short time.
Aerial Photograph of Cherry Hinton Hall 1987 showing the site. (Courtesy of Cambridge University Committee for Aerial Photography).
During the 1990’s the playpark was further refurbished, with distinct toddler play areas and older children areas. A major new paddling pool area was constructed, which consists of two pools, one for general use and one for toddlers.
The newly built paddling pool, c.1995 with playpark in the background. (© M.Bullivant)
This wall was one of two original entrance walls, either side of the front door to the Hall building. This western wall, shown, was removed in the late 1990’s to make adaptions, in the form of a sloped pathway, so that the hall was wheelchair accessible, as previously, at the front of the entrance walls, were several steps. (© M.Bullivant)
In the 2000’s, tennis courts were added to the site, just immediate north to the playpark area and exercise equipment was also added. The bird sanctuary had closed by this time and some tree art was made from trees that had been retired. Further play area improvements were made with the addition of an accessible, disabled play equipment.
When I first started my research into the history of the Hall, back in 1998, I was amazed to learn that the buildings were not even grade listed. So I set about finding out how one goes about such a thing and I was successful in getting the Hall and buildings listed. If I can do it, so can you - always have a check if you think a building should be listed and now a days you can do the whole process online. I know it can be a mixed bag in some respects because of restrictions that then get placed on a building but I really did think it worth getting the Hall listed, to protect it for us all as it is a public park and we locals love it.
Cherry Hinton Hall is a Grade II listed building and was added to the Statutory List on 19 September 2002, along with the Lodge, gate piers and the gates at the drive entrance. The list description is provided below:
“667/0/10138 Cherry Hinton Hall 19-SEP-02 Grade II
Small country house, now training centre. 1839. For John Okes. Gault brick with stone dressings and parapeted slate roofs. Ornamental brick stacks, some with multiple flues. Tudor style with coped gables with finials. 2 storeys, attic and cellar. Entrance front is a 6-window range in all at first floor of 2-light casements with hood-moulds (single-light 2nd from left). To centre right is a projecting gable with a panelled door with Tudor-arched surround and casements to side walls and over. On the front to both sides of this projection are 2-light stone mullion and transom windows, one to right and two to left, some with leaded lights. On far left a gabled projection with large square bay to ground floor. Two gabled ranges further to left, one single-storey, the other 2- storey. Front to right has 2- and 3-light casements over taller similar mullion and transom windows with a canted bay to right. Rear has various wings and C20 extensions. A large leaded mullion and transom window lights the main staircase. INTERIOR. Entrance hall has arched screen and carved stone fireplace. Staircase hall has open well staircase with pierced fretwork balustrade. Other reception rooms have similar stone and marble fireplaces. Simpler fireplaces on first floor. Cornices and panelled reveals in some rooms. Service stairs with stick balustrade. Service wings have mainly C20 character. Cherry Hinton Hall is a well-detailed house of the period which retains many exterior and interior features. It forms a group with The Lodge and gate piers and gates at the drive entrance.”
In 2004 I ran a community archaeological investigation. A 'dig' around a small area of the site was carried out, within the lake are in order to establish the whereabouts of a lost medieval watermill site. The work was designed to include participation from the children of one of the local secondary schools and the end result was 2 different interpretation boards for the park along with public information leaflets, a better understanding of some of the archaeological history of the site and the discovery of one of the original medieval mill stones, who now makes an unusual seating feature by the Hinton Brook and information board. The site, as a whole, remains rich in archaeological remains and potential for future excavation and investigation.
I will do a separate blog post on here about this - 'The Lost Watermills of Cherry Hinton"
Photographs from the 2004 excavations at the Cherry Hinton Hall, Lost Watermills Excavation. Top Left: Children getting hands-on experience. Top Right: Capping stones of an old culvert discovered. Middle Left: View inside the culvert, which proved to be from the medieval watermill workings. Middle Right: A Victorian metal fruit tree tag, from John Okes’ orchards.
Bottom left, unveiling of the new information board by the lakes, about the findings and the lost watermills of Cherry Hinton. Bottom right, the new board by the lakes and the original medieval mill stone that I found on site during the project, now placed as a seat for all to enjoy. (© M.Bullivant)
After the departure of Eastern Arts, the Hall building has been leased to The Cambridge International School, since 2008, who remain the tenant of the building today. The school have just completed a major redesign and refurbishment of the main Hall buildings, at their own expense, including the building of a new all-purpose Hall, named The Okes Hall, at the rear of the main Hall. The Council continues to use an enclosed area to the rear of the main Hall building for storage and other council use, including a service area for when the annual Cambridge Folk Festival takes place.
With the design of the Master Plan for Cherry Hinton Hall in 2009 by Cambridge City Council and its subsequent implementation over the last 9 years, along with the formation of The Friends of Cherry Hinton Hall in 2009, it is clear that people still care and are passionate about this special place and that whilst utilising the site, it should be preserved and protected.
Here is a link to The Friends of Cherry Hinton Hall
In the 21st century, the park remains an important amenity for visitors, students, and local residents, being an important green space between Cambridge town and Cherry Hinton, giving the village of Cherry Hinton some much needed distinction and preventing it being swallowed up to become an indistinct suburb of Cambridge City, whilst at the same time being within easy reach of the City and Cambridge Train station. The park is also in close proximity to Addenbrooke’s Hospital, a major employer in Cambridge providing, not just green relief for the staff, but also the visitors to the hospital. In addition, the Cambridge Silicon Valley and technology park is only a few minutes’ walk away from the park, the site proving a popular lunchtime space for its workers. The proximity of several schools to the site means that the grounds are put to good use for educational purposes and the site remains an important tool, for positive development of future generations.
So, there you go, that hopefully gives you a good general feel for the main points in the growth and development of the site and a bit more about its history. I have no-end to add to this which I have already written down, from much more detail about John Okes, who built the Hall and his family, to more in-depth details of happenings at the Hall and grounds over the years, including many written memories from many people, old photographs and voice recordings. I will bring you all these in due course :)
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This is an ongoing project to add the information, data and history of the pubs (Public Houses) that are in Cherry Hinton, both past and present. It is a fluid post with things being added to as I found out more along the way. Please do feel free to add your comments, which I can then approve to be added to the blog, if you so wish.
The Russian Arms Public House
The Russian Arms was a public house in Cherry Hinton, Cambridge, that was positioned on the east side of Cherry Hinton High Street, one house north from the Baptist Chapel, on the junction of Cherry Hinton High Street and Fisher's Lane. The records that I have found, so far, for this pub cover dates from 1867 to 1912. So, we know that it was in existence for at least 40 years as the ‘Russian Arms’.
The present-day map below shows the approximate position of the, now private, house which used to be known as the Russian Arms – marked with the red dot.
Here is a picture, below, of the building as it stands today. It is the building on the left, with the burgundy front door in the center. The top three windows from the left belong to this building, along with the 2 bay windows either side of the front door.
The only physical clue that we have to show us that there was once a pub on this site is the name above the front door, shown below, which states “Russian House 1867”
This clue gives us a solid date for this building and for, perhaps, its deliberate construction for use as a public house in 1867. There are no records of a public house upon this site, named the Russian Arms or otherwise before this date. Although, as we can see from this portion of the Cherry Hinton Enclosure Map of 1806, there were certainly buildings of some kind on this plot.
Here is the same map roughly overlaid onto a modern map - see if you can make out where the roads and buildings relate.
It is very likely, due to the angles at which both the older buildings depicted on the 1806 map and the later Russian House building stands, that they were positioned to face what was once one of the village greens in Cherry Hinton. Traditionally, the often thatched, cottages would line the edges of a village green to face inwards in order to be able to keep an eye of the cattle and livestock overnight when they were brought back in from the common land - just a little further down Fisher's Lane was a small common called Drayton Common (now built upon) which was in use throughout the medieval period. There is still some evidence today of the green at the corner of Fisher's Lane where it joins with the High Street. There was also a large pond (now filled in and built upon) on the other side of the road, on the High Street directly opposite the Baptist Chapel - giving clues to one of the features often associated with a village and it's green - a village pond. Perfect for keeping the livestock watered. It was very common to find a pub within this scene but as I have mentioned we have no records suggesting a pub on this site any earlier that our 1867 Russian House/Arms.
The records that I have found, that mention or relate to the Russian Arms, are as follows (in chronological order):
OCTOBER 29th 1881 – Cambridge Chronicle
“ “Russian Arms” Public House, and 18 tenements mostly brick and slate, ANNUAL RENTAL £133 14s. TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION BY WM. WALLIS, ON TUESDAY, November the 8th 1881, at the “Russian Arms”, Cherry Hinton, Cambs, at six for seven o’clock in the evening, by order of the Mortgagee with the power of sale in the following or other such lots as may be determined upon at the time of sale…….
LOT 4. All that New-built Brick and Slate PUBLIC-HOUSE, DOUBLE FRONTAGE, known by the sign of “The Russian Arms”, with a frontage of 66ft. 6in. The house is admirably adapted for business, having the above frontage with large Bay Windows and containing 8 Rooms with Club Room, good Cellar, Range and Copper, also a side gate Entrance to stable, Cart Shed, with lost over, Brick and Pantile outbuilding, etc. There is a Drying Ground to the back of this property with a width of 8ft. and a depth of 50ft. The above is let to Mr. W. H. Apthorpe on a lease expiring the 25th. March 1883 at a yearly rental of £35. Copyhold of the Manor of Hinton Netherhall.”
This is the first documentary evidence that I have found that discusses our pub. You can see from the record that it is regarding the sale of the property. We know from that date of the building, that it appears to have been constructed in 1867. 14 years later in 1881 it is being sold along with some other properties and the auction of all of these properties, along with the pub, is taking place at the Russian Arms itself. Auctions of property often took place in public houses in those days. What we can see from the description of the Russian Arms, is what it would have looked like and how that correlates to what remains today. The description lists the Russian Arms as 'new built', which in essence it was, being about only 14 years old. The large bay windows mentioned are still there today and we get a good description of what the building and pub itself would have been like, inside and out.
The seller of the property is William Wallis, an agent for the Netherhall Manor estate, and the property is copyhold of the Manor of Hinton Netherhall. There were once four manors in Cherry Hinton, two situated in Church End (the north part of Cherry Hinton) - Uphall Manor and Mallets Manor and two more situated in Mill End (the southern part of Cherry Hinton) - Rectory Manor and Netherhall Manor. Netherhall Manor was one of the largest Manors and would have been a physical manor house with a large administrative role in the village. Today there are no manor houses in physical form left -each one having fallen in to disrepair, gone out of use or pulled down. The only one that we do have some evidence of still standing, is that of Uphall Manor, which stands in Church End as a private house now. It was extensively remodelled and changed, the only clues to its original purpose hidden behind later brick encasement. (A separate blog is being done for the manors of Cherry Hinton, where you'll be able to read more there). At the time of this sale of the Russian Arms in 1881, Netherhall Manor was no longer a 'manor house' but was an administrative body which ran the estate and lands still belonging to what was Netherhall Manor.
The other key piece of information within the sale details is that the Russian Arms was being let to Mr W. H. Apthorpe, his lease was due to expire in another two years.
Both William Henry Apthorpe junior and his father W H Apthorpe were both well known brewers and public house owners in Cambridge during the mid-late 1800's. In 1868 William Henry Apthorpe junior had acquired the Albion Brewery in Coronation Street in Cambridge. His father owned the Victoria Brewery in Napier Street. W H Apthorpe senior retired from brewing by 1875 and the pubs that his brewery controlled were passed on to his son. By 1895 the Albion Brewery had at least 50 tied pubs in Cambridge - presumably including our own Russian Arms.
It is wholly likely then, that beer brewed at Apthorpe's Albion Brewery, shown in the picture above, was sold and served in the Russian Arms, here in Cherry Hinton.
An article on Albion Brewery on capturingcambridge.org shows what happened to the brewery after this date:
1896: acquired hy Lacon
E Lacon & Co, brewers, wine and spirit merchants
H W Badcock, Granta View, Stapleford, manager
E Lacon Ltd, brewers wine and spirit merchants
Lacon taken over by Whitbreads. Site demolished soon after.
The last date of use of our Russian Arms, being a working pub in the village, is 1912. So from the information given above it would have seen at least one change of ownership and probably brewery - that of the change in 1896 to Lacon.
In the London Gazette 1862 we find further evidence as to which Apthrope - father or son - would have been involved with our Russian Arms:
"NOTICE is hereby given, that the Partnership sub- sisting between us the undersigned, William Henry Apthorpe and William Henry Apthorpe the younger, in the business of Maltsters and Brewers, carried on by us at the borough of Cambridge, under the firm of Apthorpe and Son, was this day dissolved by mutual consent. All debts due to and from the partnership will be received and paid by the said William Henry Aptborpe, by whom the busi- ness will in future solely be carried on.—Dated this 12th day of May, 1862.
W. H. Apthorpe.'
With our building being constructed in 1867, it would mean that the Russian Arms would be in the management of William Henry Apthorpe junior.
Shortly after the notice of sale, in November 1881 we find the following announcement:
NOVEMBER 12th 1881 – Cambridge Chronicle
“On Tuesday last, the following property, situate at Cherry Hinton, was sold at the “Russian Arms”, by Mr. Wm. Wallis:-………………
LOT 4. The “Russian Arms” public-house, with cart-shed, loft and brick and pantile outbuilding, copyhold of the Manor of Hinton Netherhall, fine certain, sold to Mr. W. H. Apthorpe for £480.”
This shows that Apthorpe junior goes ahead and buys the Russian Arms and becomes owner rather than the tenant of the property. It does make me wonder though...If the Apthorpe's were the first to run a pub there and if they didn't actually build the building itself (as tenants only, why would they have?) then perhaps the naming of the pub "The Russian Arms" was simply due to the house being called "Russian House" as we can see remains the name above the door today. This means rather than searching for reasons for naming a pub the Russian Arms, the line of enquiry falls to why the original building was named Russian House. I would, at this point, be inclined to think that the Russian Arms was so named after the house itself....although....having said that...surely it was built for use as a pub rather than converted - if we go by the sale description of the building? this is a little mystery to solve!
We can see that the pub was still in business in 1887 as it is mentioned indirectly when an announcement is made in the Cambridge Newspaper regarding two cottages that were being sold next door - notice that Fisher's Lane is referred to as "Chapel Lane" due to the Baptist Chapel which was built in 1870. This name doesn't seem to be used very often in the records and today retains the preferred "Fisher's Lane". There wasn't another small lane next to the Chapel which could have had this name that can be discovered as of yet.
March 4th 1887 – Cambridge Chronicle
“CHERRY HINTON, CAMBS
Two Freehold Cottages in Chapel Lane…..and Two Brick, Stud and Tiled Cottages, situate next “The Russian Arms” Public House, …..”
In 1888 we find an entry that shows the Russian Arms still going strong and playing its role as an integral part of the community, when an inquest is held at the pub - again, along with auctions, sales and various club meetings, village pubs were often used to hold inquests and court session.
JANUARY 20th 1888 – Cambridge Chronicle
“INQUEST – Mr. C. W. Palmer, the county coroner, on Wednesday, held an inquiry at the “Russian Arms”, Cherry Hinton, into the circumstances attending the death of Blackman Flack, aged 57. The deceased had been an outpatient at the Hospital, and died rather suddenly on the 11th inst. A post-mortem examination, made by Dr. Perkins, showed that death was occasioned by consumption, and a verdict to that effect was returned.”
In 1893 we again find reference to the Russian Arms through an announcement regarding the sale of some cottages next door.
MAY 26th 1893 – Cambridge Chronicle
“Two Cottages, Brick, Stud and Tile built. Situate next the Russian Arms Public House….To be sold.”
Then the final newspaper entry that I can find for our pub, dated 1894, is in regard to another inquest held at the premises:
SEPTEMBER 7th 1894 – Cambridge Chronicle
“A FATAL FIT
An inquest was held at the “Russian Arms”, Cherry Hinton, on Wednesday evening, by Mr. A.J. Lyon, County Coroner, on the body of Susan Merry aged 49, who died somewhat suddenly on the previous Tuesday morning. David Merry, a labourer, the husband of the deceased, said on Monday afternoon, while his wife was washing, she fell down in a fit. She was subject to fainting fits, but on this occasion she did not rally as usual, and she never spoke again. He did not send for a doctor, as he thought she would come round; he had known her to be in a fit for six hours. There was no change in her condition from the time when she was seized until just before she died.-
Mrs Sarah Watts said when she was called to the deceased she was lying insensible on the floor of the kitchen. She remained in that condition for two or three hours. The doctor was sent for when witness though the deceased was dying.-
Dr. Nicholls, of Fulbourn, said he had made a post mortem examination of the body, and was of the opinion that death was due to heart disease. It was doubtful if a doctor could have done any good had he been sent for at the time of the seizure. The jury returned a verdict of “Death from natural causes.”
It is worth now checking the census returns to see who was actually living in the building over the years and to see if we can find a solid date when the building stopped being a public house.
The first entry that we have for the Russian Arms is in the 1871 Census - about 4 years after being built. Census returns were done every 10 years, the previous return was for 1861 - before our building was erected. I did however search the entire Census entries from 1841 - when they started - through to 1861 just in case there was any evidence of a pub previously on the same site but there was none.
The following details are given in 1871 Census:
Russian Arms, High Street, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge
Thomas Merry, born in Cherry Hinton, aged 33, Head, Beer House Keeper - living with him are; Charlotte Merry, born Little Wilbraham, aged 32, shop keeper - along with Fred Merry, 1 year old and George Merry 1 month old, both born in Cherry Hinton.
Notice that Thomas is running the 'beer house' but that his wife Charlotte is noted as a shop keeper - was this her occupation elsewhere in the village or town of Cambridge or did she run a small shop from the pub premises?
A couple of doors up from Thomas and Charlotte are further members of the 'Merry' family - perhaps Thomas' parents. They are predominantly Agricultural labourers.
In the 1881 Census the following details are given:
Russian Arms, High Street, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge
Thomas Merry, born Cherry Hinton, aged 44, porter - living with him are;
Charlotte Merry, born Little Wilbraham, aged 44 - along with Mary A Merry, aged 13, scholar, George Merry, aged 11, scholar, Frederick Merry, aged 10, scholar, Sarah Merry, aged 7, scholar and Rosina Merry, aged 2.
No mention of Charlotte being a shopkeeper and Thomas is listed as a porter - beer porter? or an additional occupation? Their daughter Mary A Merry wasn't listed on the previous census, so was presumably staying with relatives when the last census was being taken. Frederick and George are still there and in the intervening ten years Sarah and Rosina Merry have been born.
In the County Directory, Thomas Merry is listed as a Beer Retailer and shop keeper in 1869 & 1879 and Beer Retailer in Cherry Hinton in 1883.
The 1891 Census tells us the following:
Russian Arms, High Street, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge-
Sarah Fuller, aged 58, born Essex, Little Bury, Widow, Publican
with her are her daughter Mary Ann Fuller, born Cherry Hinton, aged 36, Laundress and her son Charles Henry Fuller, born Cherry Hinton, aged 34, Carrier.
As you can see from the above, the Merry family are no longer at the premises. Sarah Fuller was married to Charles Fuller and they had previous lived in Mill End, Cherry Hinton. Charles senior had been a railway labourer. After he had died Sarah takes on the business of running the Russian Arms.
Sarah Fuller is listed in the County Directory as a Beer Retailer, Cherry Hinton in 1892.
1901 Census is more vague with its addresses and there is a possibility for the occupants of the Russian Arms, listed on the High Street, Cherry Hinton but it doesn't distinguish where exactly on the High Street or if it could be the Hopbine, Five Bells or the Russian Arms - all of which were on the High Street at this time. Annoyingly it does note the names of The Robin Hood, The Unicorn and The Red Lion - at least it rules those ones out. Even with reading through the addresses in succession it is still not completely clear - we do have an 'Inn Keeper' on the High Street called Jane Nightingale who is a widow from Barnwell, Cambridge and is living on which ever premises it is with six of his children aged from 11 -27 (all of whom were born in Trumpington - two of the girls are working as laundry workers - a well known Cherry Hinton profession). At the moment we can't say for certain if this is the family who are then living at our pub.
An interesting article in Ale -Cambridge & District Branch Newsletter Issue 391 February 2019 - discusses the interesting character of Joe Nightingale from Trumpington who's second wife was Jane Nightingale. They had been running the Volunteer pub in Trumpington. When Jane was widowed she came to Cherry Hinton and was running the Russian Arms in 1901. So it would seem it was the Nightgales at the Russian Arms at this date.
"....his evidently very sturdy widow probably carried on in the Volunteer for a short time, but by 1901 she (along with much of her brood) had moved on to the Russian Arms in Cherry Hinton...."
You can read more about this here: https://www.cambridge-camra.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/pdf/Ale391.pdf
The image above shows us what the Russian Arms would have looked like during its working existence, this is very roughly dated to around 1910. I will place a zoomed in version below so that we can see the pub and its sign a little better.
We have more luck with the 1911 Census, which gives the following information:
Russian Arms, High Street, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge;
George Burch, Head, aged 38, born Ipswich, Publican.
Annie Burch, wife, aged 36, born Eastmeon, Hants, married for 15 years, 7 children - all survived, assisting in the business.
Florence Burch, born Eastbourn, Sussex, aged 14, domestic day girl.
Winnifred Burch, born Eastbourne, Sussex, aged 13, school.
Daisy Burch, born Eastbourne, Sussex, aged 11, school.
Fred Burch, born Portsmouth, aged 10, school.
Edgar Burch, born Cambridge, aged 9, school.
Dorothy Burch, born Cambridge, aged 6, school.
Edward Burch, born Cherry Hinton, aged 2.
We can see that the pub is still running in 1911, the Burch family in residence. Given the age of Edward Burch, their youngest at 2 years old and being the first of the children born in Cherry Hinton, suggests that the family are relatively new to the village and therefore perhaps not that long in the pub itself.
We cannot yet access the 1921 Census until January 2022 when it is to be released. So now I shall turn to the County and Village Directories to see if we can find out anything else.
So far, I have been hitting a dead end for anything after 1911 to say that the pub was still in use and no records coming up for the Burch family placing them still there, so as it stands we know that the pub was still going in 1911 but that is currently the end date we have for its use.
The Lost Pubs (www.closedpubs.co.uk) project gives us the following information:
"The Russian Arms was situated on Cherry Hinton High Street. This pub closed in 1912 under the 1904 Compensation Act."
Mike Petty (www.mikepetty.org.uk) also mentions this, in his compilation on Cherry Hinton, taken from historical newspaper reports:
1912 07 26
Licensing: Cherry Hinton Russian Arms, 12 07 26
1912 11 15
Licensing compensation for Cherry Hinton Russian Arms
1935 07 05 The Five Bells was one of five fully-licensed houses in Cherry Hinton. In 1920 the Hop Bine, next door, was done away with and the Russian Arms had been closed in 1912. Lacons the brewers said the extra penny on beer had hit sales. The Five Bells had been ringing harmoniously for a good many years to the comfort and convenience of the inhabitants and should be allowed to continue to ring a litter longer. The licence was renewed - 35 07 05b
From these reports we can see that the Russian Arms ceased trading in 1912 and became a private dwelling house.
The Russian Arms had closed as a result of the 1904 Licensing Act. It seems that the idea was to reduce the numbers of licences in congested areas, and compensation was paid under the Act.
Under the Licensing Act, 1904, in the seven years from 1905 to 1911, 7,318 licensed premises were closed with compensation. Of these, 6,880 were in England and 438 in Wales. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/acts/licensing-act-1904
Please do get in touch if you would like to make a comment or have any further information. More history and information on the other pubs in Cherry Hinton coming soon....
If you'd like to support the work that I do, why not buy me a virtual coffee, I'd be really grateful and it will help keep me going :)
The Tutton Way - Tottenhoe Way
The Tutton (or Tottenhoe) Way is an ancient route-way that skirts the eastern edge of Cherry Hinton old parish, now Ward, and now also forms the eastern Cambridge City Boundary.
VIDEO 1 of 3 - Tutton Way
I can, so far, trace this boundary from the northern end of Bridewell Road in Cherry Hinton where it joins Fishers Lane, following through the back gardens and the line of this routeway south, to meet up with the small passage way at the other end of Bridewell Road, that leads through on to the Back Field, where it continues on in the form of a paved footway to join Fulbourn Road. It then crosses straight over Fulbourn Road and enters the northern boundary of the Gog Magog Hills, where it travels up through a field edge as a trackway, going first alongside the eastern edge of the Peterhouse Technology Park and then continues up over the hill, in a straight line, through the fields as a wide trackway (currently closed to the public). The Tottenhow Way then meets the Worts' Causeway Road at one of the highest points on the Gog Magog Hills, where, straight across the road, it continues, for a short way, as a wide trackway named the Shelford Gap before apparently ending at the thick hedge line beyond which the Gog Magog Golf Course lays. It also meets the apparent end of the Roman Road, collectively known as Worstead Street or Wool Street. The Roman Road leads off of the end of the Shelford Gap (Tutton Way) in a south easterly direction, in a long straight line for many miles.
VIDEO 2 of 3 - Tutton Way
There is a little bit of a dirt track entrance/parking on the roadside by the start of the Shelford Gap on Worts' Causeway and barriers to prevent vehicles driving down the track but it is a popular place to start the walk down the Roman Road. However, it’s not very advisable to go there alone and there are, shall we say, interesting individual and collective, unusual activities that go on at that spot, particularly as there is a small wooded area alongside the trackway. It is not really very safe to walk up to this point as there is no real safe footpath from Cherry Hinton, so going by bike or car is currently the safest way.
From Cherry Hinton the route is taken, starting from the Robinhood at the junction of Cherry Hinton High Street and Cherry Hinton Road. Go straight over onto Queen Edith’s Way. Take the first turn on the left to drive over Lime Kiln Hill, at the immediate base of Lime Kiln Hill, where there is a crossroads. Take the next right to drive up Worts' Causeway, passing the Beech Woods on your right, continue up the hill until you reach the crest, where you will see the parking area for the Shelford Gap on your right hand side. You will be able to cross the road on foot to look north over the Tutton Way and see the spectacular views across Cambridge, Cherry Hinton and beyond. If it is a very clear day you will also be able to spot Ely Cathedral in the distance (about 20 odd miles away.)
Once you’ve finished your visit you can either go back the way you came or you can continue along the road eastwards, turning right, as you come out of the Shelford Gap on to Worts' Causway, where it then becomes Shelford Road. It will lead you over the hills, with lovely views, where you’ll also be able to see the sails of the Fulbourn windmill on your left as you make the descent down towards the village of Fulbourn. At the bottom of the road you’ll meet with Cambridge Road and mini roundabout, where you can turn left and follow the road straight back to the Robin Hood pub in Cherry Hinton.
I think, on the whole, hardly anyone today knows about the existence of the Tutton Way, other than the people who remember me talking about it when giving local history talks to groups, where I would mention it now and then. I had found out about it from reading old documents, maps and surveys from Cherry Hinton when doing my research on the village over the years. Being stuck in isolation during the lockdown is giving me chance to write up a few things that I’ve been meaning to write about for some time, including the ever-allusive Cherry Hinton Local History book that I’ve been promising to write for years. So, I thought I’d start with writing about a few of the places you can walk to or get to, for nice walks and offload some of the information and theories about the archaeology and local history of the area, out of my head and onto paper/screen, with an idea to start forming the book that I must get done.
Prehistoric Cherry Hinton Map ©Michelle Bullivant 2010
The map above, that I made some time ago, gives you an idea of some of the routeways and sites in and around Cherry Hinton during prehistoric times. I have placed the current main church building of St Andrew's on the map just to help you get your bearings. You can see the Tutton Way (Tottenhoe Way) that we are discussing, you can also see the Roman Road and the projection of its, potentially earlier route. You can also see the hillforts of Wandlebury and the War Ditches. I also mapped out the (at the time) known burial (barrow) sites, showing their relationship to the routeways. It just gives you a basic illustration of the area that we are looking at and makes the point that you can often tell ancient (pre Roman) boundaries and route-ways as they are often have barrows and other markers along their course.
At the end of the Shelford Gap, near to where it meets the Roman Road, were once two locally known barrows, nicknamed the Two Penny Loaves:
"Smith's carrier's cart turned right from Fulbourn, heading south into rolling countryside. All the way it creaked ever upwards, till at the top of a ridge they reached an ancient track which was apparently an old Roman road linking Cambridge with Colchester, the way marked by two barrows, called by local people the "Two penny loaves" (Pickwick's Cambridge Scrapboook 1838, Mike Petty)
"At this point, where the road returns to its original direction, there are the remains of two tumuli, called the Two- penny Loaves, one of which was opened in 1778, and seven skeletons were found at its bottom ; six of them were laid close together and parallel, with their heads pointing due north, the other lay with its head directed due west, and its feet next the side of the nearest of the six (Nichols's Lit. Artec, viii. 631)" (Ancient Cambridgeshire, by Charles Babington, Cambridge Antiquarian Society)
The picture above (with my son in the foreground and daughter climbing in the background, many years ago) gives you an idea of what Bronze Age burials mounds, or barrows as they are also called, look like. The one above is situated on Thurfield Heath in Royston, not that far away. You may often drive past them at the side of roadways and not realise what they are, a good example is of the one on the A11 as you drive towards Norwich from the 5 went ways roundabout at Barton Mills. The Two Penny Loaves would have looked something like this, standing side by side. However their fate, as with many of these barrows, was that they were excavated and destroyed, with the majority of barrows being ploughed away over the years to only occasionally be seen on aerial photographs as a crop mark on the ground. After lockdown, I will see if the Gog Magog Golf Club will let me go and have a look for the site of the Two Penny Loaves and report back to you if any sign of them remains.
One of the earliest descriptions that we have of the layout of some of the land in Cherry Hinton comes from a written survey of the Manor of Netherhall in the Parish of Hynton from 1592 (Separate articles on the Manors of Cherry Hinton and place names in the area soon). Unfortunately this survey, carried out by Christopher Saxton (you can read about him on Wikipeadia), is a written survey only with no accompanying map that we know of. This means we have to go by the written descriptions within the old open fields of the parish to work out where he is talking about.
The main open field that the Tutton Way traversed was called Quarry Field, it was a large area covering across from Lime Kiln Hill, on the Gog Magogs, eastwards to the parish boundary (the Tutton Way). Saxton gives the following description and land measurements:
"Quarry Field... The Furlong abutting the Totton Way -
One piece lying in the lands of ..Junior South - 1 acre, 0 roodes, 5 dawks and 3 pches
One piece laying between the lands of Uphall on the east and Gilbert Wise on the west - 0 acres, 2 roodes, 8 dawks and 2 pches"
(London Metropolitan Archives, H01/ST/E/106/002)
So here we see the first known written mention of the Tutton Way - spelt by Saxton, as 'Totton'
The next reference to the Tutton Way can be found in the Survey of St. Thomas' Hospital Land in Cherry Hinton, 1733 by John Tracey. (Survey of Hospital Propery at Cherry Hinton, by John Tracey, 1733. London Metropolitan Archives, H01/ST/E/107/003) which again was a written survey based within the old open fields of the parish but this time, contained three simple maps. One of which shows the route way, within Quarry Field, called Tutton Way. I'll order a decent copy of the map and place here, after lockdown, so you can have a look.
Here you can read a bit more of a very good, general overview about the Roman Road, written by my friend and colleague Tim Malim. You will see that this link takes you to the Friends of The Roman Road & Fleam Dyke website, where you can have a little bit more of a look at their take on the Cambridge Dykes. I will do a separate article or two about these and The Roman Road myself at some point soon because if I start on these now I’ll get completely side tracked and loose my focus on the Tutton Way - research is never really done!
If you want to know a bit more about Wandlebury, for now, you can follow the link below, to take you to the Cambridge Past, Present and Future website, who look after the Wandlebury site.
And more on the War Ditches can be read here, linked from the Wildlife Trust website who now manage and care for this particular site.
Again, I will write something further on both Wandlebury and the War Ditches at some point soon and post here on my website for you but I just need to focus on one thing at a time or I shall be drawn into writing great reams of theories, arguments and never actually getting anything up and published for you.
The earliest maps and surveys, that I’ve mentioned above, call the routeway the Tutton Way or Totten Way, where as I have seen it also named the Tottenhoe Way on a later map. There are a couple of possible meanings to this name – If we start with the earlier ‘Tutton’ it could be a derivative from the word ‘tot’ meaning fool or idiot, perhaps indicating a more perilous routeway – the fools way. Another thought is that ‘toten’ is the German word for ‘dead’, suitable for an ancient routeway lined with the burials of the ancestors perhaps? However, the later used name of 'Tottenhoe' makes a little more sense in many ways, as Totternhoe is a village in central Bedfordshire where the Totternhoe stone is sourced, now bear with me, as this does relate to our site in some regard – Totternhoe stone is not hard stone, it is a seam of very strong, durable chalk which was quarried in that area for use in great buildings, such as Westminster Abbey. Here in Cherry Hinton, from at least the Roman period, the strong building chalk, known as clunch, has been quarried and in turn used in such buildings as Peterhouse College and Ely Cathedral. You can see the evidence of this at East Pit off of Lime Kiln Hill, in the large open quarries there, which is only a stones through from our Tutton Way. Perhaps the name related to this strong chalk and its quarrying industry. Does the chalk seam run from Bedford through Cambridge? Burwell village, to the north east of Cherry Hinton, also used to have chalk quarries where the Burwell Rock would be quarried for building use in similar ways.
A quick google for you, rather than me spending ages going through the piles of old maps that I have here, reveals some further information, from Cambridgeshire Geological Society, which gives this latter theory more credence as being the most likely for the naming of our routeway.
If you go onto the Back Field in Cherry Hinton, at the eastern end where a passageway leads through on to Bridewell Road, you can stand on the Tutton Way as it cuts over the back field in the form of a wide paved pathway, which leads out onto Fulbourn Road. Once out onto Fulbourn Road, you will be able to see that this spot also marks the official Cambridge City Boundary, with a sign, again highlighting the importance of this ancient boundary. The back field is a Cambridge City Council owned green space which local residence use to walk their dogs and the staff, at ARM across the road, come out to have games of cricket and sit and enjoy their lunch. In the autumn there are great amounts of blackberries to be picked and in the spring the boundaries are covered in yellow daffodils. The Back Field runs from the passageway that runs into Leete Road, off of Fulbourn Road and it ends just before the hedges as you approach the roundabout at Yarrow Road, Fulbourn Road junction.
VIDEO 3 of 3 - Tutton Way
The Tutton Way can be seen in the form of an earthwork running along inside the back gardens of the houses on the eastern side of Bridewell Road. My mum used to live down the end section of this road and there was a large, clear slope running up and through her back garden which was not a natural slope but man made.
The map above (which you can see in full on the Cherry Hinton Community Archives website), shows the parish boundary marked by a dotted black line. As it stands and from what we (you and I) now know, the Tutton Way ends were it joins the old Roman Road at the end of the Shelford Gap, however, you can also see that if you were to draw a straight line from this point over the Roman Road, that the Tutton Way would lead straight into Wandlebury hill fort. I would strongly suggest that it did just that, once upon a time.
If you then follow the Tutton Way north, across the field and back towards Cherry Hinton village you come to a point where the parish boundary abruptly turns to the right, up and then to the left again, creating a off set square shape. The point at which the boundary turns is where the Tutton Way ends, as far I can tell at this time. This point is at the bottom of what is now Bridewell Road, where it meets Fisher's Lane in Cherry Hinton. The odd square actually marks out where there was once a some common land, it was called Drayton Common.
It can easily be imagined that cattle were put out to pasture on the common land at this point and then driven up onto the higher ground, along the Tutton Way, perhaps in even earlier times, all the way into Wandlebury encampment itself.
However, more research and on the ground field work is needed to really test out and explore if this really was the extent of the Tutton Way. It good fun to get out the maps and look on aerial views of the site and see if we can look for clues and trace the line of this old route way any further - perhaps the route continued across Drayton Common to meet at the crossroads by the church, with what is now Church Lane, the High Street and Fulbourn Old Drift? Or did the route turn at some point and join Daws Lane which runs bend Cherry Hinton Hall and was one of the old route-ways into Cambridge? etc. etc..
Below are a selection of photographs that I took of some of the records held by Peterhouse College, who owned a lot of land in Cherry Hinton. I am afraid that the pictures rea not very good quality as they were taken some years ago on an old phone or camera, so I must get back to Peterhouse to get clearer images. The pictures below cover the area around the Shelford Gap and are from the 1870's, recording what crops were grown and if they were successful etc. The important thing of note is that within the written columns Quarry Field is mentioned along with "Furlong abutting the Totten Way" - so the name was still in use for this route way around this date.
As always, research is never finished and theories evolve as more data becomes available but they must all start somewhere - an idea, a clue and most importantly curiosity. I will add to this and any other of my posts as and when I discover some new piece of information to add, in the meantime I hope this has been of some interest to you all :)
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